The flow of non-Indians into their ancestral homelands had an enormous effect on the culture of the Modoc people.
The Quapaw Agency staff considered them superior among the tribes they supervised.
Russell in Wyoming Territory.
The complex houses tribal headquarters, tribal archives and library.
They have also acquired a land base and have introduced bison to their area.
By 1865, Captain Jack led his band of Modoc off the reservation and returned to their territory of the Lost River (California) area of Northern California.